Test Your Mechanical Engineering Knowledge

Ponha à prova os seus conhecimentos de Engenharia Mecânica

"When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you do not know a thing,
to allow that you do not know it – this is knowledge"
Confucius (551 BC – 479 BC), The Confucian Analects

How many of the following parts do you see in this picture?

       •   Connecting rod

       •   Crankshaft

       •   Fuel injector

       •   Cylinder liner

       •   Turbocharger

Quantas peças da lista seguinte consegue identificar na figura?

       •   Biela

       •   Cambota

       •   Injector

       •   Camisa

       •   Turbocompressor

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Show me the parts | Quero ver as peças

Deep Groove Ball Bearing • Rolamento de Esferas Rígido

Both efficient and pleasing to the eye, the ball bearing can be seen as an emblem of the machine age — a name often used to define the 1920s and 1930s, when industrial designers as well as consumers took a new interest in the look and style of commercial products. Even parts of machines could be appreciated for their beauty, which came from the purity of abstract geometry. Good design was considered by modernists as essential to the elevation of society, and in 1934, this ball bearing was among the first works to enter The New York Museum of Modern Art's design collection. Designed by Sven Wingquist, this sturdy steel ball bearing is composed of a double layer of balls in a race. This type of bearing was structurally superior to the sliding bearing, which wastes energy in realigning machinery shafts thrown off during assembly-line manufacturing. The self-aligning quality of the ball bearing made it a superior product, since the bearing could absorb some shaft misalignment without lowering its endurance.

This is a Deep Groove Ball Bearing.

Which loads can it take?

       •   Radial loads only

       •   Radial loads and some axial load

Que cargas pode suportar um Rolamento de Esferas Rígido, como o representado na figura?

       •   Apenas cargas radiais

       •   Cargas radiais e alguma carga axial

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View or download my Glossary of Bearings published at Confluências – Scientific and Technical Translation e-Journal

Veja ou importe o meu Glossário de Apoios, Chumaceiras e Rolamentos publicado em Confluências – Revista de Tradução Científica e Técnica

On September 13, 1870, a patent was granted to Daniel C. Stillson, a steamboat fireman, for a "wrench". Stillson invented the _____ wrench, sometimes called the Stillson wrench. Stillson, suggested to the heating and piping firm Walworth manufacture a design for a wrench that could be used for screwing pipes together. Previously, serrated blacksmith tongs had been used for that purpose. The owner, James Walworth told Stillson to make a prototype and “either twist off the pipe or break the wrench.” Stillson's prototype twisted the pipe successfully. His design was then patented and Walworth manufactured the wrench. Stillson was paid about $80,000 in royalties during his lifetime.

From top to bottom, how would you call these parts/objects?

       •   Pipe wrench or adjustable wrench?

       •   Eyelet pin or cotter pin?

       •   Ring wrench or box wrench?

De cima para baixo, estas peças são designadas:

       •   Chave de tubos ou chave inglesa?

       •   Pino de olhal ou troço?

       •   Chave de anel ou chave de caixa?

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Which machine elements do you see in this hand bone drill?

       •   Rack and pinion

       •   Screw

       •   Worm gear

       •   Crank

       •   Bevel gear

Quais os órgãos de máquinas presentes neste berbequim cirúrgico?

       •   Pinhão e cremalheira

       •   Parafuso

       •   Engrenagem sem fim

       •   Manivela

       •   Engrenagem cónica

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Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Italian inventor, artist, architect, and scientist had an interest in engineering and made detailed sketches of:

     •   the airplane
     •   the helicopter and other flying machines
     •   the parachute
     •   the submarine
     •   the armored car
     •   the ballista (a giant crossbow)
     •   rapid-fire guns
     •   the centrifugal pump (to drain marshes)
     •   ball bearings
     •   contact lenses
     •   the worm gear (a set of gears in which many teeth make contact at once, reducing the strain on the teeth, allowing more pressure to be put on the mechanism)
     •   and many other incredible ideas that were centuries ahead of da Vinci's time.

A small pitch diameter reduces the sliding _______ and increases the efficiency of the worm.

       •   Addendum

       •   Dedendum

       •   Working Depth

       •   Velocity

Um diâmetro da circunferência primitiva reduzido reduz o/a ______ de escorregamento e aumenta o rendimento da engrenagem sem-fim.

       •   Cabeça do dente

       •   Pé do dente

       •   Profundidade de trabalho

       •   Velocidade

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Charles Goodyear invented vulcanized rubber in 1844 that was later used for tires.
     •   In 1888, John Dunlop invented the air-filled or pneumatic tires, however, his were for bicycles.
     •   In 1895, André Michelin was the first person to use pneumatic tires on an automobile, however, not successfully.
     •   In 1911, Philip Strauss invented the first successful tire, which was a combination tire and air filled inner tube. Strauss' company the Hardman Tire & Rubber Company marketed the tires.
     •   In 1903, P.W. Litchfield of the Goodyear Tire Company patented the first tubeless tire, however, it was never commercially exploited until the 1954 Packard.
     •   In 1904, mountable rims were introduced that allowed drivers to fix their own flats.
     •   In 1908, Frank Seiberling invented grooved tires with improved road traction.
     •   In 1910, B.F. Goodrich Company invented longer life ties by adding carbon to the rubber. Goodrich also invented the first synthetic rubber tires in 1937 made of a patented substance called Chemigum.

What is the name for the pattern or grooves in a car tire?

       •   Matrix

       •   Tread

       •   Tire configuration

       •   Cut marks

Que nome têm os sulcos de um pneu que contactam com o pavimento.

       •   Matriz

       •   Piso

       •   Configuração do pneu

       •   Marcas de corte

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To produce conditioned air in a vehicle, refrigerant has to cycle in the following sequence:

     •   At the Compressor, it is pressurised (and, hence, heated), travelling then as a vapor to the Condenser and forward to a Receiver Drier, where moisture and debris are removed.
     •   The refrigerant then travels towards the back of the engine where an expansion valve lets it expand rapidly (hence lowering its temperature and pressure), thus allowing cool refrigerant into the Evaporator, situated right behind the Heater.
     •   The cold Evaporator draws heat from the warm air in the heater box, thus cooling the air, which is then distributed through vents into the vehicle cabin.
     •   And returns by suction to the start all over again.

The image shows the diagram of an automotive air conditioning system. In any A/C sistem, the Refrigerant leaves the Condenser as

       •   Superheated Vapor

       •   Sub-cooled (compressed) Liquid

       •   Saturated Liquid

       •   Expanded Liquid

A imagem indica o esquema do sistema de ar condicionado de um automóvel. Em qualquer sistema de A/C, o Refrigerante sai do Condensador sob a forma de

       •   Vapor sobreaquecido

       •   Líquido subarrefecido (comprimido)

       •   Líquido saturado

       •   Líquido dilatado

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In the Evaporator, the refrigerant changes to a

       •   Saturated Liquid

       •   Sub-cooled (compressed) Liquid

       •   Superheated Vapor

       •   Expanded Liquid

No Evaporador, o refrigerante é transformado em

       •   Líquido saturado

       •   Líquido subarrefecido (comprimido)

       •   Vapor sobreaquecido

       •   Líquido expandido

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American car manufacturer, Henry Ford (1863-1947) invented an improved assembly line and installed the first conveyor belt-based assembly line in his car factory in Ford's Highland Park, Michigan plant, around 1913-14. The assembly line reduced production costs for cars by reducing assembly time. Ford's famous Model T was assembled in ninety-three minutes. Ford made his first car, called the "Quadricycle," in June, 1896. However, success came after he formed the Ford Motor Company in 1903. This was the third car manufacturing company formed to produce the cars he designed. He introduced the Model T in 1908 and it was a success. After installing the moving assembly lines in his factory in 1913, Ford became the world's biggest car manufacturer. By 1927, 15 million Model Ts had been manufactured. Through mass production and competition from other manufacturers, the price of a Model T dropped from $575 to $290, making it affordable to the middle class.

Which car auto makers are known as "The Big Three", or the "Detroit Three", in the United States?

       •   Buick, Chrysler and Lincoln

       •   Chevrolet, Plymouth and Ford

       •   General Motors, Chrysler and Ford

       •   General Motors, Dodge and Ford

Nos Estados Unidos, que construtores automóveis são conhecidos como "As Três Grandes" ou as "Três de Detroit"?

       •   Buick, Chrysler e Lincoln

       •   Chevrolet, Plymouth e Ford

       •   General Motors, Chrysler e Ford

       •   General Motors, Dodge e Ford

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Disk brakes, which we take for granted, were patented by British inventor Frederick William Lanchester in 1901. They didn't appear in North American cars until Chrysler introduced them in the early 1950s, and they became standard only in the 1980s. Born in London, England, Lanchester entered Hartley University College (now the University of Southampton) in 1891, and then the National School of Science at Imperial College. His first post-school work was a theory of aerodynamics, which he developed in 1892 but was persuaded not to publish, as his theories in this "outlandish" field would ruin his reputation as an engineer. He did manage to publish a new system for color photography in 1895, a field of high repute at the time. Three of the eight Lanchester brothers started the Lanchester Engine Company in 1900 to sell his designs on the market. Many features of the original were retained in their production models, including the mid-mounted engine between the front seat that led to the lack of a "hood" area. The transmission was based on his own compound epicyclical gearing, giving three forward speeds, and drove the rear axle through his own Lanchester worm gearing. The transmission also included a system similar to modern disk brakes that clamped the clutch disk for braking, rather than using a separate system as in most cars.

The image shows the disk brake of a modern automobile. What's the name of the yellow part?

       •   Brake caliber

       •   Brake pad support

       •   Brake pump

       •   Brake caliper

A imagem mostra o travão de disco de um moderno veículo automóvel. Como se chama a peça amarela?

       •   Calibrador do travão

       •   Bomba do travão

       •   Pinça do travão

       •   Cáliper do freio

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And my name is _________ / O meu nome é _________

What does the picture on the left show?

       •   Rotary peristaltic pump

       •   Centrifugal pump with backward-swept impeller

       •   Hand-operated, reciprocating water pump

O que representa as imagem à esquerda?

       •   Bomba peristáltica

       •   Bomba centrífuga c/ rotor c/ pás com curvatura traseira

       •   Bomba de água alternativa de operação manual

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Operation of the *** valve / Funcionamento da válvula ***

Where is the PVC valve on the engine?

       •   In the intake manifold

       •   In the exhaust manifold

       •   On the valve cover

       •   It's not on the engine

Onde se encontra localizada no motor a válvula PVC?

       •   No colector de admissão

       •   No colector de escape

       •   Na tampa das válvulas

       •   Em nenhum lado do motor

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When combustion temperatures exceed 2500 °F, atmospheric nitrogen begins to react with oxygen during combustion. The result is various compounds called nitrogen oxides (NOx), which play a major role in urban air pollution. To reduce the formation of NOx, combustion temperatures must be kept below the NOx threshold. This is done by __________ a small amount of exhaust through the "exhaust gas __________ valve", or EGR valve. The EGR valve controls a small passageway between the intake and exhaust manifolds. When the valve opens, intake vacuum draws exhaust through the valve. This dilutes the incoming air/fuel mixture and has a quenching effect on combustion temperatures which keeps NOX within acceptable limits. As an added benefit, it also reduces the engine’s octane requirements which lessens the danger of detonation (spark knock). The EGR valve consists of a poppet valve and a vacuum diaphragm. When vacuum is applied to the EGR valve diaphragm, it pulls the valve open allowing exhaust to pass from the exhaust manifold into the intake manifold.

In the field of automotive engineering, what does
'EGR' stand for?

       •   Exhaust Gas Regulator

       •   Engine Glow-plug Relay

       •   Exhaust Gas Recirculation

       •   Enhanced Gas Recovery

Em engenharia automóvel, o que significa 'EGR'?

       •   Exhaust Gas Regulator

       •   Engine Glow-plug Relay

       •   Exhaust Gas Recirculation

       •   Enhanced Gas Recovery

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The first electrical ignition system or electric starter motor for cars was invented by GM engineers Clyde Coleman and Charles Kettering. The invention of the electric starter motor by Charles Kettering eliminated the need for hand cranking. United States Patent #1,150,523, was issued to Charles Kettering of Dayton, Ohio in 1915. Charles Kettering became the founder of Delco (Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company). He also went on to invent other automotive lighting and ignition systems, lacquer finishes for cars, antiknock fuels, leaded gasoline, and an electric cash register.

Vincent Hugo Bendix was born in Moline, Illinois on August 12, 1882. In 1901, Vincent was hired by Glenn Curtiss to work on the Torpedo motorcycle, and later in 1904, Bendix worked as general sales manager for Holsman Automobile Company, where he learned all about the internal combustion engine and decided make a career in automobile design. In 1911, Vincent patented the Bendix drive for electric starters, an improvement to the hand cranked starters of the time. Bendix advertised it as "the mechanical hand that cranks your car." The first automobile to use the Bendix starter drive was the 1914 Chevrolet "Baby Grand". In 1924, after meeting French engineer Henri Perrot at a European auto show, Bendix acquired the license to Perrot's shoe-brake patents. With these, Vincent Bendix embarked upon a remarkable career with the launch of the Bendix Engineering Works and the Bendix® trademark, a brand name that is still recognized and used long after the founder’s death in 1945.

Which of these starter motor parts turns the flywheel to start the engine?

       •   Bendix

       •   Nose Cone

       •   Solenoid

       •   Brushes

Qual das peças seguintes do motor de arranque faz rodar o volante do motor, para o colocar em funcionamento?

       •   Bendix

       •   Cone da cabeça

       •   Bobina de chamada

       •   Escovas

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Your Porsche pulls sharply to the right when the brakes are applied: Technician A says the front brakes need to be adjusted. Technician B says the left front caliper is not working. Who is correct?

       •   Technician A

       •   Technician B

       •   Both are right

       •   Both are wrong

O seu Porsche puxa subitamente para a direita quando os travões são aplicados: o mecânico A diz que os travões dianteiros têm que ser afinados. O mecânico B diz que a pinça do travão dianteiro esquerdo não está a funcionar. Quem é que tem razão?

       •   Mecânico A

       •   Mecânico B

       •   Os dois têm razão

       •   Nenhum deles sabe o que está a dizer

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Image: Caterpillar, Inc.

The image shows a group of parts of a backhoe loader. What would you call the numbered parts?

       1   Hydraulic Cylinder or Hydraulic Jack?

       2   Box-Type Boom or Hollow Boom?

       3   Cylinder Rod or Cylinder Tube?

       4   Stick or Dipper?

       5   Bucket or Shovel?

Na imagem está representado um grupo de componentes de uma retroescavadora. Como se chamam as peças numeradas?

       1   Cilindro Hidráulico ou Macaco Hidráulico?

       2   Lança em Caixão ou Lança Ôca?

       3   Biela do Cilindro ou Haste do Cilindro?

       4   Braço ou Flecha?

       5   Balde ou Pá?

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Welding can trace its historic development back to ancient times. The earliest examples come from the Bronze Age. Small gold circular boxes were made by pressure welding lap joints together. It is estimated that these boxes were made more than 2000 years ago. During the Iron Age the Egyptians and people in the eastern Mediterranean area learned to weld pieces of iron together. Many tools were found which were made approximately 1000 B.C. During the Middle Ages, the art of blacksmithing was developed and many items of iron were produced which were welded by hammering. It was not until the 19th century that welding, as we know it today was invented.

Approximately 1900, Strohmenger introduced a coated metal electrode in Great Britain. There was a thin coating of clay or lime, but it provided a more stable arc. Oscar Kjellberg of Sweden invented a covered or coated electrode during the period of 1907 to 1914. Stick electrodes were produced by dipping short lengths of bare iron wire in thick mixtures of carbonates and silicates, and allowing the coating to dry. Meanwhile, resistance welding processes were developed, including spot welding, seam welding, projection welding and flash butt welding. Elihu Thompson originated resistance welding. His patents were dated 1885-1900. In 1903, a German named Goldschmidt invented thermite welding that was first used to weld railroad rails. Gas welding and cutting were perfected during this period as well. The production of oxygen and later the liquefying of air, along with the introduction of a blow pipe or torch in 1887, helped the development of both welding and cutting. Before 1900, hydrogen and coal gas were used with oxygen. However, in about 1900, a torch suitable for use with low-pressure acetylene was developed.

The root opening is:

       A   The surface perpendicular to the weld.

       B   Distance between joint members at the root.

       C   The groove face adjacent to the joint root.

       D   None of the above.

A folga da raiz de uma soldadura é:

       A   A superfície perpendicular à soldadura.

       B   Distância entre os membros da junta na raiz.

       C   Face da junta adjacente à raiz da junta.

       D   Nenhuma das hipóteses anteriores.

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To be in the 5G position for welding , a pipe must be located in a:

       A   Vertical axis.

       B   Fixed horizontal axis.

       C   Rotating vertical axis.

       D   Fixed vertical axis.

Para estar na posição 5G para soldadura, um tubo deve estar:

       A   Num eixo vertical.

       B   Fixo, num eixo horizontal.

       C   Em rotação, num eixo vertical.

       D   Fixo, num eixo vertical.

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View or download my Glossary of Welding in European Portuguese published at Confluências – Scientific and Technical Translation e-Journal

Veja ou importe o meu Glossário de Soldadura em Português Europeu publicado em Confluências – Revista de Tradução Científica e Técnica

A differential pulley: A tackle in which an endless rope passes through a movable lower pulley, which carries the load, and two fixed coaxial upper pulleys having different diameters; yields a high mechanical advantage, i.e., the ratio of force being moved (W) to the effort (Ft).

The theoretical mechanical advantage of a differential pulley, such as the one pictured in the above figure, depends upon the:
1. Difference in diameters of the two top pulleys;
2. Sum of diameters of the two top pulleys;
3. Length of the rope;
4. Difference in diameters of the two small pulleys.

In the (frictionless) differential pulley pictured at left:

       A   What is the effort (Ft) required to lift the cargo (W)?

       B   To lift W by 10 cm (h), how much rope lenght (H) must

             be pulled?

Na talha diferencial da imagem à esquerda, e considerando que não existe atrito entre os elementos do sistema:

       A   Qual é a força Ft necessária para elevar a carga W?

       B   Para elevar a carga (W) numa altura de 10 cm (h), qual

             é o comprimento da corda (H) que deve ser puxado?

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And my name is _________ / O meu nome é _________

What kind of valve do you see on the left?

       •   Globe valve

       •   Gate valve

       •   Butterfly valve

       •   Check valve

Que tipo de válvula está representado na imagem à esquerda?

       •   Válvula de globo

       •   Válvula de cunha

       •   Válvula de borboleta

       •   Vávula de retenção

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90° ELL with reinforcing gusset | Curva de 90° com gusset de reforço

The image at left shows a 6-view orthographic projection of a 90 deg. ellbow with reinforcing gusset. Which method was used to produce this drawing?

       •   1st angle (European)

       •   3rd angle (American)

A imagem da esquerda representa as 6 vistas da projecção ortogonal de um curva de 90 graus com gusset de reforço. Que método foi utilizado para produzir este desenho?

       •   1.º quadrante (método europeu)

       •   3.º quadrante (método americano)

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Copyright© 1999 João Roque Dias   •   Technical Translator   •   Tradutor Técnico   •   Last updated: 28 Oct 2016 14:07 WEST